School Budget Cuts
School budget cuts involve a great reduction in the funding of education sector of the economy and removal of grants meant to improve learning and research in various schools and learning centers (Steven 58). School budget cuts have a great effect on education and the systems in any State or Republic. For schools in most States, this has been necessitated by the decline in the tax revenue following our most recent depression and the drain in the budget reserves. The major States have resorted to spending cuts in several departments of the economy that have in turn hurt many households and have reduced many services (Cleveland 15).
The cuts have been implemented in order to ease economic burden on various states. Such budget pressures are far from being over because unemployment rates are high and are predicted to remain high for some period of time. Revenues are also expected to remain at the lowest level. This has greatly caused rounds of cuts in many sectors. Numerous legislators and governors, therefore, have proposed budget cuts to keep pace with the economic conditions in various States (Leachman 46). This has hurt states’ economic resources. The research in this paper, aims to analyze the causes and impacts of school budget cuts in many states where the budget cuts have been implemented.
Tax revenue has been declining for some time in most States. This has made many governmental officials cut down on spending that has in turn hurt many families (Leachman 48). It has also resulted to reduction in many services such as education in those states hence school budget cuts. The cuts have been enacted in at least forty-six states since 2008, and have affected many sectors of the economy including health care, services to the elderly and the disabled, and educational system. This devastation resulted from revenue that came from taxes like sales tax, income tax, as well as other sources of revenue, which were used to pay for such services(Oliff 3). These taxes were reduced and dispersed to other economic areas due to the recession our nation was going through (Oliff 3). The need for these services did not reduce, but instead increased since the families having economic difficulties have been drastically increasing.
Budget cut of schools and other childhood education programs have been implemented in at least thirty-three states. This has resulted to numerous effects on the quality of education in the United States (Aoron 185). Arizona reduced pre-school for many children, giving funds to schools to provide more support to the disadvantaged children from pre-school to third grade. This was also meant to help charter schools and kindergarten. This left school districts and parents with the burden to pay for the cost of having their children in school beyond a half-day program (National Association of State Budget Officers 12). Arizona is just one of the many States experiencing negative outcomes due to school budget cuts.
Other States include for example, California, which has also cut the budget to local districts by a huge margin, reducing various programs such as adult literacy education and aid for needy students(Leachman 65). Close by in Colorado, reduced public school funding has caused uproar in the local community. Georgia schools budget cut has even led to the local district schools be exempted from a class-size requirement in order to reduce costs (Leachman 65). All the way in Hawaii, they had to shorten the 2009-2010 academic year by seventeen days in order to reduce the amount of money being spent on their educational programs. Illinois reduced education funding for student transportation and eliminated grants meant to improve the study skills at schools.
Unfortunately, all of these budget cuts has resulted in a reduction on professional enhancement for principals and trainers as well as talented summer schools and initiatives for mathematics science in Maryland (Steven 46).
In Massachusetts, the funds for early intervention programs, which help the children with special needs has also been eliminated. Many students in New Jersey cannot access to the services aimed at enhancing student achievement and keeping them safe between three p.m and six p.m, since such funding has been cut (Robert & Lynch 102). In low-income regions of North Carolina, at least twenty-four schools have been left without a social worker due to reduction in funding meant to have social workers or nurses in those regions (Robert & Lynch 100). The state even eliminated spending for teacher mentoring.
In states such as Rhode Island and Virginia, the school budget cut has reduced the number of children being served by Head Start services. The State’s program to shrink the class sizes and provide career development for teachers has also been suspended. The state also reduced funds for maintaining fourth-grade student to staff ratio requirement (Harvey 464).
The school budget cut has also been implemented in public colleges and universities in forty-three states which has had impounding effect in higher institutions of learning (Coley & Baker 37).
In Alabama State, the 2011 fiscal year cuts to higher education have resulted in hike in tuition fee that range from eight percent to twenty-three percent. In Arizona, the board of regents approved an increase of twenty percent tuition fee as well as a reduction in the salary spending. This has been implemented through actions such academic reorganization. Some staff have been laid off; some positions have been eliminated in the state’s three public universities. There has been a big reduction on freshman enrollment in universities and colleges in California due to increased tuition fee (Cleveland 19).
In the state of Colorado, cutbacks are evidenced at the state’s institutions. Many employees have been laid off resulting to high employee workloads and this in turn has made the staff contribute high perks to health and retirement benefits. In Georgia State there has been high cut on state funding on public higher education. This has made necessitated the University of Idaho to respond to budget cuts. The University of Idaho has imposed furlough days on its employees in the entire state which range between four hours to forty hours based on level of pay. Michigan has reduced student funds aid by over sixty-one percent which includes a reduction in the competitive scholarships and tuition grants. It has also eliminated scholarships in nursing and work-study program (Cleveland 28).
In Minnesota, due to cuts in the higher education, approximately over two thousand students have lost their state fund aid grants while the remaining recipients of state fund aid have seen their grants reduced by over twenty percent. In North Carolina State, students of University North Carolina have seen their tuition fees hiked greatly in the 2010/2011 academic year. In the same State students of Community, college have seen their tuition fee increased by forty-two percent as a result of the reductions in the State higher education funding in 2011 fiscal year. Following South Dakota’s 2011 fiscal year budget cuts on funding for public universities, the board of regents did increase university tuition by 4.6 percent that has resulted to a decline in the enrollment. This was also seen in community colleges in Virginia in 2010 during the spring semester (Clitche 74).
State funding, especially for public institutions such as colleges and universities was also reduced in the State of Washington by twenty-six percent. Hence, the University of Washington has in the recent past increased tuition fee by over thirty percent (Robert & Lynch 56). In the State’s supplement budget, it reduced six percent more from the direct support to the six public universities owned by the state. These also affected thirty-four community colleges has led to more increase in the tuition fees, early retirement, layoff of universities’ and community colleges’ staff, furloughs as well as other cuts.
The State of Washington also cut down the support for Work-Study in colleges by approximately seventy-one percent. It also suspended financial aid in many of its educational programs (Coley & Baker 37).
Recently, graduate students from the University of Hawaii at Manoa protested over cut in the school budget. The students protested due to cuts to the department of biology-teaching assistants. The cuts targeted about fifty students from major research initiatives whereby the teaching assistants were to lose huge financial aids. The university also planned to cut the positions of teaching assistants in spring 2015 in order to reduce on the cost of operation.
There has been massive School budget cuts in the recent past resulted from economic recession in many states. Due to this economic depression and declining revenues, many states decided to cut down on spending on various services. Consequently, funding on schools and education as a whole has been hit hard. Federal school budget cuts on education have impacted negatively on education. School effectiveness and academic achievements have been affected by the budget cuts in education. Poor children have lost and will still lose a great deal. It compromises on quality of education and services related to education.
Aoron, Wildavsky. “Public Administration.” Review, 21. 183-190, 1991.
Clitche, Paul. Budget. L. Cote and J. F. Savard (eds.) Encyclopedia
dictionary of public administration. IOWA USA: Iowa State University Press, 2012
Coley, Richard & Baker, Bruce. “Poverty and education: finding the way
forward.” ETS Centre for Research on Human Capital and Education, pp. 36-37, 2013
Cleveland, Freid. “Evolution of the Budget Idea in the United States.” The
annals of the American academy of political science, 15-35, 1915.
Harvey, Rosen. Public Finance, 7th Ed. McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2005.
Leachman, Michael. “Failing to Extend Fiscal Relief to States Will Create
New Budget Gaps.” Centre on Budget and Policy Priorities, 2010.
National Association of State Budget Officers. “The Fiscal Survey of the
States,” June 2010
Oliff, Paul. “Recession Continues to Better state Budgets; State Responses
Could Slow Recovery,” 2010.
Robert, W. Smith & Lynch, Thomas. Public Budgeting in America. 5th ed.
Pearson; Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2004.
Steven, Sheffrin. Economics: Principles in action. New Jersey: Upper
Saddle River, 2003.