Written pathways paper #4
Paper, Order, or Assignment Requirements
Please use same Criteria as previous order. I am attaching the previous paper. PLEASE READ VERY WELL and adjust after reading all comments. THEN add a page or 2 for part #4.
Part#4. Discussion/recommendations: offer a solution or suggestions for improving how to ameliorate the impact on the health condition in the population, in both countries or at least in the low income country. Discuss public health work you propose that could change the patterns of the population health indicators of the health condition in the future. (1-2 pages)
The whole paper Criteria : 1. Introduction of the globalization pathway: introduce it, describe it, define it, and explain how it is measured. Justify its relevance to global public health. Explain why you chose to work with it. Read Chapter 9 in the Birn et al. textbook. It contains a list of major globalization pathways, and has a discussion of how those pathways are linked to health issues. There are many combinations of pathways and health status indicators. Think of a pathway that interests you, for example, one pathway that “generates health inequities” is “environmental damage” (p. 426): as an example, it can result from agricultural issues which may affect a nutrition related health indicator, or you could use some aspect of water and relate that to an appropriate health outcome for which you have health status data. Some examples from last year: fast food proliferation and rates of death from cardiac disease, population migration and changing Chagas Disease rates and distribution, health technology proliferation and quality of health services. (1-2 pages)
2. Choose at least one health condition (and its population indicators) that is impacted through the pathway. Define the health condition, and how it is measured at the population level using epidemiologic or other numeric indicators (rates per xx population; proportions; incidence and prevalence, ratios) and define the indicators you will use. Discuss the assumptions needed to use the indicators. This is part of critical thinking, learning to critique the measures that you are using. Explain the source of the data, and whether it is valid and how you know that. We are accepting a broad definition of “Health condition”, for example, diseases, health care delivery system markers, access issues, pharmaceuticals, the context that creates vulnerability to non-optimal health status, unhealthy behaviors. You need quantitative evidence as part of your health status impact. Explain why you chose this health condition for this pathway. (1 – 2 pages)
3. Explain how the pathway impacts the health condition in a high income country and a low income country. Compare and contrast the countries. Show data verifying the HIC and LIC status of each country. Tables and graphs might be useful to compare patterns in the two countries. Critically discuss how the pathway affects the population levels of the health condition. Explain reasons why the patterns/effects exist in the two countries. Tell us why you chose these two countries to compare. (2-4 pages)
4. Discussion/recommendations: offer a solution or suggestions for improving how to ameliorate the impact on the health condition in the population, in both countries or at least in the low income country. Discuss public health work you propose that could change the patterns of the population health indicators of the health condition in the future. (1-2 pages)
Organization and Format of the Paper
The numbers of pages per part are suggestions, but the paper should be about 6-10 pages excluding references. There should be at least 10 references, mainly from professional peer-reviewed journals. Limit references to websites to less than 1/4 of all references, and include the name and date of the web site you accessed.
Pages must be 1.5 spaced with paragraphs indented but no lines skipped between paragraphs.
The final copy of your paper will be accompanied by your “Turn It In” report (an app on Canvas) detailing the percentage of your paper that copies other people’s work. Instructions will be given to you about how to use this program. You will have the ability to submit your paper to “Turn It In” as part of your own drafting and revising process. The instructor needs to see the report of your final complete version, the one you submit for grading.
Put your name in the document not just in the file name, that way you are showing me that you take responsibility for your work.
Put the date of submission in the document.
Put your last name (family name) in the filename of the document you submit, preferably something like Lastname-part1, Lastname-part 2, etc.
Please use section headings that clearly indicate the 4 parts of your paper.
Include page numbers in the document.
Submit each part electronically to Canvas at the place set up by the TA to receive them.
Provide a professionally prepared list of references for your paper.
Referencing Guidelines for Global Health Overview Pathways Paper
Scientific reports often assume that “the scientist knows nothing” and must reference each fact as it appears in the paper. Other scientists want to know where you got your information, so they can check it for authenticity and see if they accept the facts you present.
The following example shows unclear and incomplete referencing for stated facts: “Recent rates of breastfeeding (ever) are 73.9% in the United States and 90.3% in Canada, compared to 97.1% in Kenya and 98.5% in Peru (data from the CDC and WHO).” Which reference belongs to which rate? Each fact/number needs its own reference: for example, “73.9% in the United States (reference A) and 90.3% in Canada (reference B)”.
GHO-task-guidelines-2015, bjs, aje, 9/14/2015 4:15 PM
Accurate information means referencing where the facts you use came from. Statements like “Studies show…” or “1 billion people in the world are undernourished” need references.
If a whole paragraph of information is derived from the same source, please put the reference at the start of the paragraph with a sentence like: “The following information comes from Jones et al. (2015).” The style of having the reference for an entire paragraph of data at the end is not acceptable. If information comes from different sources in the paragraph, then put each reference in place for each piece of information.
Anything obtained from a web site needs the accessed Internet address and the date when the accessing occurred, not just the date of the source document.
Avoid journalistic (subjective) writing using words like “tremendous”, “horrible”, “large”, “many”, and provide data instead with comparisons to show how big a difference there is between some standard reference (or what is considered “optimal”) and the “non-normative”. For example, “exclusive breastfeeding rates for the first 6 months of life are 4 times higher in Peru than in the USA (reference C).” For a scientific paper – you need references for subjective thoughts, and if you are quoting, then use quotation marks, or use data to make the case along with proper citation for the data.
For scientific writing we are advocating that students use a style where the “point” or “bottom line” is the first sentence in the paragraph, and the sentences in the rest of the paragraph provide information in support of the assertion. I want to read the main point, and then fact, fact, fact, in support of that point…each with its own reference at the point of stating the facts (if they each come from a different source). Here’s a good example: “Typically the problem of domestic violence is more pronounced for women, but it is a problem for both men and women. According to the CDC, about 24.3% of women and 13.8% of men “have experienced severe physical violence by an intimate partner…at some point in their lifetime” (“Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence”, 2013). Furthermore, “9.4% of women have been raped by an intimate partner” and about twice as many women (16.9%) than men (8.0%) have experienced some other form of sexual violence (“Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence”, 2013). Finally, one third of “female homicide victims [are] murdered by their current or former partner (“Domestic Violence: Statistics & Facts”, 2015).”
FINALLY VERY IMPORTANT!The final version needs to be accompanied by an assessment of the “copying” using “Turn It In”. . According to some experts you should strive for <20% copying, but that depends on how many references you have, which should be exactly like what exists on the Internet. Anything that is quoted with quote marks is also acceptable, as long as it is properly referenced. It is best if you finish your final version and run it through Turn It In as a draft, to see for yourself what the program considers “copied”, then revise, if needed, and submit for a final run. That final run is what we need to see. If there is “too much” copying we will ask you to revise the paper, which could result in a grade of “incomplete”. So plan ahead, and check for yourself first by assessing a draft version of the final complete paper.
READ ALL Instructions and comments on previous paper CAREFULLY!