Expand the FAULT TYPES folder and then click Fault-Types Animation to view an animation

Expand the FAULT TYPES folder and then click Fault-Types Animation to view an animation

Question 26: Based on a visual inspection of the globe, which country experienced the most earthquakes in 2011? (You might have to zoom in or out).

A. Japan

B. Chile

C. Russia

D. United States

Question 27: With respect to all earthquakes, most of them are located along the perimeter of the Pacific Ocean. What is this area – with its distinct pattern of earthquakes – known as?

A. Edge of fire

B. Ring of fire

C. Pacific tectonic zone

D. Ring of earthquakes

With the2011 Earthquakes selected, check the PLATE BOUNDARIESfolder.

Question 28:Which of the following describes the spatial relationship between plate boundaries and earthquake epicenters.

A. They are seldom found near each other

B. They appear to be randomly distributed

C. They are often found together

D. There is no apparent spatial relationship

Collapse and uncheck the EARTHQUAKESandPLATE BOUNDARIES folders.

HOTSPOTS

Expand the HOTSPOTS folder and then click Hotspot Animationto view an animation of this type of convergence boundary.

Double‑click and selectSeamount Chain and Kilauea.

Most scientists believe that the Hawaiian Islands and the associated Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain were created by a hotspot. A hotspot is a stationary location in the asthenosphere where a magma plume upwells and forms aseamount (an undersea volcano). If tectonic activity is sufficient, the seamount will grow, break the surface of the ocean, and eventually form an island.

Although the hotspot remains stationary, the overlying plate continues to move, resulting in a series of islands, atolls (coral islands with lagoons), and seamounts that show the movement of the plate over millions of years. Within this chain, the plate movement is evident as you move away from the Big Island of Hawai’i where the hotspot currently exists. At the end of the seamount chain is Meiji Guyot, created about 82 million years ago and considered by many to be the oldest seamount in the chain.

As the bend in the chain suggests, the Pacific plate has not always move at the same rate or in the same direction. Researchers theorize that about 43 to 50 million years ago, the Pacific plate changed direction and shifted from a northerly direction to a more westerly one. Currently, the Pacific Plate is moving in a northwest direction. And while the hotspot is currently under Kilauea on the Big Island of Hawai’i, it is also forming Li’iho Seamount, a new seamount about 35 km southeast from the Big Island.

In the Table of Contents, open the Layers pane, and verify Borders and Labels is selected. You might have to zoom in to see the labels of the islands.

Question 29: Using the ruler tool, what is the distance in miles from Kilauea to the center of Kauai?_

A. ~ 235 miles

B. ~ 325 miles

C. ~ 525 miles

D. ~ 352 miles

Kauai was formed about 5.1 million years ago.

Question 30: Using the information above, calculate the average rate of speed (in inches per year, or in/yr) of the plate since the creation of Kauai? (Remember:Convert miles to inches: 63,360 inches = 1 mile). Show your work.

A. 235 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 2.92 inches/year

B. 352 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 4.37 inches/year

C. 525 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 6.52 inches/year

D. 325 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 4.04 inches/year

Question 31: Using the ruler tool, what is the distance in miles from Kilauea to the center of Maui?

A. ~90 miles

B. ~110 miles

C. ~130 miles

D. ~150 miles

Maui was created about 1.3 million years ago.

Question 32: Using the information above, calculate the average rate of speed (in inches per year, or in/yr) of the plate since the creation of Maui? (Remember: Convert miles to inches). Show your work.

A. 90 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 4.39 inches/year

B. 150 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 2.63 inches/year

C. 130 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000years = 3.04 inches/year

D. 110 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 3.56 inches/year

Question 33:Do hotspots occur only in the ocean?Explain why or why not.

A. Yes, because they form only under oceanic crust

B. Yes, because there is no evidence of them under continental crust

C. No, because, there is evidence of them under continental crust (e.g. Yellowstone)

D. No, because the Andes Mountains in South America are a good example of a hotspot

In the Table of Contents, go to theLayers pane, and uncheck Borders and Labels.

Collapse and uncheck the HOTSPOTS folder.

FAULT TYPES

Expand the FAULT TYPES folder and then click Fault-Types Animation to view an animation.

Folding is the process by which rocks compress and deform. Several kinds of geologic structures are associated with this process, including anticlines, synclines, overturned fold, and overthrust faults.

Double-click Fly-over: Appalachian Mountains.

Close the animation control panel:

Double-click and select Appalachian Mountains.

This area of the Appalachian Mountains is known as the Ridge and Valley Province. The geomorphology, or spatial form and evolution of the land, consists of many ridges and valleys. Anticlines form most of the ridges in this area, while synclines make up many valleys. However, over millions of years, an inversion can occur in which structurally, synclines become ridges and anticlines become valleys. This is due in part to the erosion of softer rock by water over time. A resultant landform in these structurally inverted landscapes consists of steeply sloped ridges with sharp summits known as hogback ridges, which occur on each side of an anticline valley.

Question 34: Is Feature an anticline or syncline?

A. Anticline

B. Syncline

C. Hogback ridge

D. Both a syncline and anticline

Question 35: What is Feature (linear feature) which is locatedat the base of the Rocky Mountains? ____

A. Anticline

B. Syncline

C. Hogback ridge

D. Both a syncline and anticline

Double-click and select Appalachian Mountains.

Many geographers recognize four major faults – normal (Figure 5), reverse (Figure 6), overthrust (Figure 7), and strike-slip (Figure 8) faults.

Figure 5. Normal Fault (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

Figure 6. Reverse Fault (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

Figure 7. Overthrust Fault (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

Figure 8. Strike-Slip Fault (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

In the following questions, answer and identify these types of faults. Where there is a series of normal faults, horst and graben can be found.

Question 36: What is the name of the cliff face formed by a normal fault?

A. Scarp

B. Talus

C. Scree

D. Slide

Question 37: What is Feature ?:

A. Horst

B. Graben

C. Ridge

D. Reverse fault

Question 38: What is Feature ?:

A. Horst

B. Graben

C. Ridge

D. Reverse fault

Question 39: What fault is not associated with uplift?

A. Normal

B. Reverse

C. Overthrust

D. Strike-slip

Question 40: Are faults limited to land, or can they occur under water as well? Explain why or why not.

A. Limited to land, as there is no evidence of faulting under water

B. Limited to land, as faulting is a continental crust phenomenon

C. Not limited to land, as faulting can occur under water

D. Not limited to land, as faulting requires at least one side to be oceanic.

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