Prevention Program Proposal Guidelines
The Prevention Program Proposal should be developed to meet a need that you have seen in your school and/or community. You may have observed a problem in your school (for example, ATOD use at after-school events, smoking among middle school students, Ecstacy use among high school students, drinking and driving, keg parties among high school students, the list can go on and on).
Your job is to devise a program that will address the problem. You will need to have a specific target group in mind (e.g., 6th graders at ABC Middle School). Your program should have an educational component (one that you can incorporate in the classroom, for example) and some involvement with the community (law enforcement, mental health center, medical community, local YMCA or Boys and Girls Clubs, etc). Many of the most successful programs involve parents, also.
Your paper should use the headings as I have in the guidelines. For example, your first section should have the heading “Description of the Target Group.” Under that heading, write your target group description. DOUBLE SPACE your proposal.
Section 1. DESCRIBE THE TARGET GROUP
Describe the group targeted for ATOD (Alcohol, Tobacco, & Other Drugs) Prevention Program. Include characteristics such as age, gender, education level, race and ethnicity of the target group. Include factors in the environment that could relate to prevention planning efforts. This section is usually about ½ page, double-spaced.
Section 2. DESCRIBE THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE
Prevention Program Advisory Committee: This group is comprised of individuals whom you select to provide guidance and support for the program. As a general rule, you should include representatives from the major “stakeholders” groups. These are people who have a “stake” in the program, including program participants, parents, school administrators, teachers, community representatives, and others who can help. Their jobs may include helping to identify the focus of the program, helping to market or promote the program, and provide feedback on the program’s progress. Typically, an advisory committee will meet on a regular basis to advise program staff on ways to enhance and improve the program.
In this section, identify the group’s composition and explain how the group will be involved in the proposed program. You do not need to provide the actual names of the advisory committee (but you can if you want to). Be sure to indicate the titles or roles of the members. For example, you might indicate that the Assistant Principal will be on the committee to provide a link between the program and the school administration.
Section 3. RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTOR ASSESSMENT
By understanding the risks and protective factors in the environment of the target group, prevention program planners can be more effective in focusing on the real problems and capitalizing on the protective factors that may be present. For example, an examination of the risk factors could reveal that “70% of children in grades 6-8 in XYZ Middle School are not supervised by adults between the hours of 3:00 pm – 6:00 pm (i.e., they are “latchkey” children).” A protective factor might be that there is an after-school program at the Boys and Girls Club that is not being fully utilized.
In this section, you will include any “needs assessment” data that you have on your target group. If you do not have actual data, then explain how you would acquire the data, e.g., if you don’t have absenteeism data, you would explain that you will acquire the absenteeism data from the school records of the target group. I do NOT expect you to actually collect data, but be sure to be clear on what types of data you will need and how you will acquire those data.
Describe how you will determine the target group’s risk and protective factor profile.
a. Secondary or Archival Data: These data are usually routinely collected data that you can use to help understand the problem. Some examples are school attendance records, police records, emergency room records, and incidence of drug-related problems at school.
b. Primary Data: These data are not routinely collected so you have to collect the data. Examples are surveys you administer, your observations, and interviews with parents, students, or teachers.
Describe how you will include your Advisory Council in determining the type of program that is most needed. Generally, the Advisory Committee can provide their observations of the risks and protective factors and they can help review the needs assessment data so that you are sure you have identified the most pressing needs to address.
Section 4. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
A. Program Goal(s):
B. Program Objective(s):
Section 5. BRIEF REVIEW OF LITERATURE (approximately 3-4 pages)
Review the literature related to your program focus and the target group. Include research findings related to efforts to deal with the problem/issue your proposal is designed to impact. Attempt to include descriptions of at two similar programs.
Section 6. THE INTERVENTION:
Describe the proposed program. Tell how it will work to accomplish the goals and objectives.
Section 7. FORMATIVE and PROCESS EVALUATION
Formative and Process Evaluation focus on the appropriateness and progress of the program, its ongoing refinement, and its reception at the site. Remember: the goal of formative evaluation is the control and assurance of quality in practice.
Section 8. OUTCOME and IMPACT EVALUATION
A. Outcome and Impact Evaluation Questions. The research questions should be restatements of goals and objectives.
B. Outcome and Impact Evaluation Design(s).
1. Specify when, from whom, how, and by whom data will be collected to answer the evaluation questions.
2. Identify and briefly describe the factors that could affect the validity of the evaluation.
Your Intervention is a description of your action plan for the Proposal. You might think of it as the “recipe” for your program. The Intervention is an action plan that will allow you to accomplish your program’s objectives and goals.
As an example, here is a possible program title and two objectives for it.
The program is called Say No to Tobacco. The target group is 8th graders at Eppes Middle School. The program involves a classroom educational unit on Tobacco for the 8th graders and a peer education program where the 8th graders prepare and give a presentation to local elementary students.
Suppose one of the objectives is:
“After participation in the Say No to Tobacco Program, students in Eppes Middle School will increase their knowledge of the health risks of tobacco use as measured by a knowledge test.”
Then your intervention should explain how you plan to increase students’ knowledge of tobacco. You would give an outline of the lessons that you plan to teach that will increase their knowledge. This does not have to be a complete lesson plan, but it should provide a good description of each lesson to be covered in the program. Of course, you are welcome to include the entire lesson plan if you wish.
If another objective is:
“After participation in the Say No to Tobacco Program, students in Eppes Middle School will demonstrate their commitment to avoiding tobacco use by participating in the Say No to Tobacco peer education program as measured by participation records.
For this objective, your intervention plan should explain how you plan to conduct this activity. In this made-up example, suppose you plan to have the 8th graders at Eppes Middle go to a local elementary school to teach 5th graders about avoiding tobacco. To do this, your intervention plan might include training for the 8th graders on making their presentations to the 5th graders. Also, you would coordinate with a local elementary school to find time to do this. It could be done as a school assembly, for example. Here you could provide a description of the activities that would need to take place to accomplish this objective.
I do not have a specific format for you to use for the Intervention Plan. I will leave it up to you to decide how best to present your “recipe” for accomplishing your program’s objectives.
The Evaluation plan that you describe will allow you to answer two important questions:
1. Did we accomplish what we set out to accomplish?
2. How can we improve the operation and overall impact of the program?
In the first question, we are primarily interested in determining if we accomplished our goals and objectives for the program. This is called “Impact/Outcome Evaluation.” If an objective is to increase knowledge about alcohol, then we ask the question “Was there an increase in tobacco knowledge as a result of the program?” In this example, a good way would be to give the students a pretest on tobacco and a posttest on tobacco. We would expect to see an increase in their scores as a result of our program. So, in order to determine if we accomplished what we set out to accomplish, simply turn your goals and objectives statements into questions, and describe to me how you plan to answer the question.
For the second question, we are interested in learning how the program can be monitored and, if possible, improved. This is called Formative Evaluation. You will need to think of ways that you can do “mid-stream” assessments that will help you know if the program is going like you want it to and will help you find suggestions for improvement. There are actually five “targets” for Formative Evaluation. You do not need to hit all five targets, but you should think of ways to determine if the program is going as planned and how it can be made better. For example, after about a week into the program, you might ask the participants what they like about it and how they would like to see it changed. You could do that will a brief survey. If you have a parent component in your program, you could send out a questionnaire to the parents asking for their comments on the program. You don’t want to wait until the program is complete to do this because you might find that there are things that can be changed while the program is actually in session that would make it better.
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