Conservation of Biodiversity in South East Asia

Conservation of Biodiversity in South East Asia

1. Introduction

Sustainable biodiversity has been one of the most important aspects in the universe. It is an aspect that allows for a swift progress of life of every organism living in the world. Apparently, every organism is depended on one another for survival and healthy living. This consequently reveals that there is no single animal, plant or human being can live without the mechanism done by the other in an ecological environment. However, human activities have posed a great danger of destroying various ecological aspects that lead into extinction of several important organisms that play important role in the ecology (Maffi, Luisa, 2005). For instance, South Asia has been one of the most regions in the world that had several kinds of living organisms that have already declined in terms of their population due to uncontrolled and exploitive human activities done in the area. Apparently, most animal and plant species have disappeared due to human encroachment into their habitants while seeking for food, wealth, settlement places and pleasurable things.

The region has been one of the most mega hotspots that have diverse animal and plant species. Reports show that little have been lost in their ecological environment but the uncontrolled human activities that have recently been introduced in the area pose a great risk of declining biodiversity sustainability level. Moreover, the area experiences tropical climate essential for the flourishing of several species of organisms, plant and animals. However, human activities have caused climate, destroyed habitants for many organisms and exploited several species of animals and plants (Persha, Lauren, et al, 2012). This has consequently reduced the number of animals, plants and other organisms living in the region. Accordingly, several measures have to be taken in order to regain a sustainable biodiversity level that was there before or otherwise face consequences caused by loss of biodiversity in the coming years.


For the past few decades conservationists have documented rapid global declines of biodiversity at the hands of humans. In fact, human activities are the major cause of species extinction, global warming and habitat loss. Threats to species are fundamentally global, so it is necessary to address conservation problems now. The protection of endangered species is a popular and importance part of effort to sustain the earth natural diversity. In addition, each species contribute in a specific way in our ecosystem (Nantarat, Nattawadee, et al 2019). Rich bio-culture in South Asia will definitely enhance a better life and economic growth for the people living in the region since it enhances a more sustainable environment that provides all sorts of life supporting aspects such as food, shelter among others. Accordingly, the study aims at exploring biodiversity trends in the region to determine the current state of biodiversity to provide effective conservation measures for a more sustainable bio-culture.

2. Literature Review

A. Threatened Species and Habitats

1. Mammals

Mammals in the region face the greatest risk of extinction due to human activities. It is the area that has had the riches biodiversity in terms of animals. The area has several animal species the undeniably depend on one another for life. However, the number of animals in the area reveals a declining trend because of uncontrolled human activities taking place in the region (Hancock, Lorin, 2019). Apparently, several species have extinct as there has been no effective measures taken to conserve bio-culture in the area. For instance, the Chinese elephant is an elephant species that lived in the area but currently are not present in the region.

Poaching has been one of the most human activities that endanger the life of animals in South Asia. It is an illegal activity done to acquire pleasurable animal body parts that are sold in the black market. Poaching is one of the richest activity behind drugs and other illegal activities done in the globe (Subramanian, Suneetha M., et al, 2011). Accordingly, poachers have taken it as a serious wealth creation activity. Animals have been killed for ivory, skins and hides and other for food. This has consequently led to a declining population of the number of mammals living in the region. Precisely, the activity is uncontrolled and therefore these poachers kill as many target animals as possible to make money.

Besides poaching, there are other several human activities that risk the extinction of several kinds of mammals in the region. People are destroying their habitats for farming and settlements (Hancock, Lorin, 2019). Moreover, mining activities are been carried in the forests which have led to the destruction of entire ecological system. The climate has also been changing since people are clearing forest and industries emitting harmful gases into the atmosphere. This has consequently led to death of several animals in the region, an aspect that reveals a high rate of decline of the population of mammals in the area.

2. Livestock and Agriculture

Everything in the ecology is apparently depended on the other for survival. Farming is really depended on biodiversity for various things for it to become successful. For instance, things like pollination have to occur for crops to yield. Besides this, trees in the forest play a vital role as they bring rains need for agricultural activities (Subramanian, Suneetha M., et al, 2011). However, human activities distort the level of bio-culture and cause various changes that negatively affect livestock and agriculture. Even though the activity itself massively destroys biodiversity in the region, requires bio-culture for better results.

Human beings are clearing forests to create room for cultivation. This has consequently led to reduction of trees that bring rain for the crops to flourish. A lot of insects have gone into extinction that play a vital role of pollination. This consequently shows that agricultural productivity will decline in future. Moreover, various microorganisms that play a vital role in the soil have been killed by dangerous chemical used in the activity (Pacheco Capella, et al, 2016). Pollution is also causing death and destruction various plant and other organism species that help maintain successful growth and flourishing of crops cultivated by farmers in the area. Destruction of forests and grasslands has also led to reduce food for livestock. This consequently shows that agriculture and livestock keeping have been endangered by decreased biodiversity sustainability.

3. Birds

South Asian region has been a home for several kinds of birds. It is one of the areas that have vast species of birds living in the forests and the entire region environment. However, some of important species have gone into extinction due to various human activities. The place is said to have 2700 species of birds that naturally live in the area (Hancock, Lorin, 2019). Most of these species are at risk of going into extinction as the environment is becoming unsafe for their survival. Climate change caused by human activities has been the prime cause to extinction and migration of these birds.

Human beings have indeed destroyed their habitats. This has been through deforestation which massively destroys their homes. Apparently, people are cutting trees to get construction materials and for industrial use. Everyone aims at acquiring a bigger land for agricultural activities that are earned through forest clearance (Subramanian, Suneetha M., et al, 2011). It is an activity that has led to destruction of their environment which makes them migrate and other starve to death. Apparently, human activities have degraded their natural homes, grasslands and wetlands which has posed a great risk to the life of these birds.

Besides this, some birds have been killed by human beings for food. Hunters kill or trap large numbers of birds to be used as food. This has consequently reduced the population of the birds living in the region’s forests (Persha, Lauren, et al, 2012). Precisely, hunting has endangered most of bird species as they are targeted for food. Exploitation for food threatens 50% of birds living in the area. Moreover, birds are being captured from the area for world bird trade. Accordingly, most species have been vulnerable to extinction as their habitat is destroyed, exploited and trapped for various used.

4. Forests

Forest has been the habitat to majority of animals, birds and other living organism. They are apparently the source of everything needed by these several kinds of species. Forests provide food, shelter and a natural home to many organisms living in them (Pacheco Capella, et al, 2016). This consequently provides a supportive environment that is used by other animals and birds for their survival. However, the size of area occupied by forests in South Asia is declining. This has consequently led to migration of various birds, animals and death of several important microorganisms as their habitat is being destroyed.

Through deforestation, several plant species have been cut down. Reports show that several plant species have gone into extinction. People have been cutting down tree for construction and industrial purposes. Most these activities are done without considering the various measures that should be taken while cutting down trees (Persha, Lauren, et al, 2010). Even though people depend on trees for construction, there are various effective conservation measures that can be done to avoid losing of important plant species. Trees are being logged without being replaced; an aspect that poses the risk of climate change that can massively destroy the entire forest.

South Asian population has also been rapidly growing. It is an aspect that leads into clearing of forests to make settlement areas. Besides this, forests are being cleared to create space for various activities (Maffi, Luisa, 2005). These include mining, urban centers and agricultural activities. Accordingly, the rate at which forests are being cleared is high and risks the extinction of important tree species that play a vital role in the ecology. Forests play an integral role to the sustainability of bio-culture since nearly everything living in the forest depends on the trees and other organisms available in it.

5. Marine Life

South Asia has been one of areas that have several water bodies. Accordingly, the area has several species of marine animals and other organisms. However people in the area are overfishing to get enough food and fish for trade. Accordingly, various species in the waters are at danger while others have gone into extinction due to uncontrolled fishing done in the area (Hancock, Lorin, 2019). Most of the fishing tools trap nearly everything that comes across its way regardless of its size. This has therefore led to reduction of fish population in the waters as well exhaustion of several species of fish and other marine food.

Human activities being carried in the area have also led to decline in the level of marine biodiversity. The climate of the area reveals a gradual and steady climate change that threatens the life of marine animals. People have cleared forests that attract rain, an aspect that has led to drying up of several water bodies found in the region (Pacheco Capella, et al, 2016). Besides this, pollution has been one of the prime factors that threaten the life of marine animals. Homes and industries have been disposing toxic chemical that cause death of many aquatic animals. Several kinds of fish and other marine species have died due to toxic substances released into the water bodies. Accordingly, pollution is a major aspect resulting from human activities that make aquatic life vulnerable to extinction.

B. Factors that Threaten Biodiversity

1. Illegal Wildlife Trade

Illegal wildlife trade has been one of the most threatening factors to sustainability of biodiversity in an ecosystem. It is an activity that is among the most lucrative unlawful businesses in the world. Asia has been a hub for the exportation of wildlife treasuries as well as consumers of these illegal items (Persha, Lauren, et al, 2010). Accordingly, a big number of wildlife animals are being killed for their important body parts that are sold in the black market. Poachers are not licensed and have been sneaking into the animals habitats where they trap or kill them for their body parts. This is consequently reducing the population of the most targeted animals as they are frequently hunted by these poachers to earn a living.

Tigers and rhinoceros have been the most targeted wild animals. A rhino is hunted for its ivory while tiger for its skin and other body parts used to make Chines traditional medicines. This consequently reveals that the two species are on high demand for their valuable body parts(Squires, Dale, 2014). It is an aspect that has nearly reduced their population to a half and some have even gone into extinction. Accordingly, their absence in the ecology would seriously distort ecological balance that is said to provide sustainable life in the environment.

Besides animal species, there are also some bird species that are targeted by these illegal poachers. These species are sold outside the region for money as they are said to reveal some treasurable features and significance by their users (Persha, Lauren, et al, 2012). Accordingly, a large population of these birds have been hunted and trapped and sold in the wild bird trading centers. Accordingly, their population has reduced and the species are vulnerable to extinction. Illegal wildlife trade has undeniably threatened the survival of animals and birds in the area. It is an activity that has been common in the region with poachers targeting specific animals and birds that make them a lot of money.

2. Agricultural Activities

Food security is among the most important aspect that every person aims at. Accordingly, people have cleared forests and grasslands to create land for cultivation. It is an activity that has indeed threatened the life of wild animals, plants and other organisms living in the forests. Apparently, farming has been a major cause that has distorted biodiversity in any particular ecological niche. Much of the land occupied by wild animals and forests has been cleared by farmers in pursuit of extending their agricultural activities (Hancock, Lorin, 2019). The natural life of natural organisms is being occupied by farmers who operate their agricultural activities to produce food.

Agriculture has been an activity that largely contributes to the pollution of the natural environment. Farmers use dangerous chemical that alter the natural environment. Accordingly, most wildlife species have found it difficult to survive in the changing environment that contains toxic substances. This has consequently led to the death and migration of important animal and bird species in the region (Hancock, Lorin, 2019). Through pollution resulting from agricultural activities, some important species have gone into extinction. Besides this, farmers may spray dangerous chemical with an aim of controlling pests and diseases. This consequently ends up killing several insects that play important role in that particular ecological environment.

Accordingly, farming activities are massively destroying bio-culture in South Asia. It is a factor that largely contributes to the destruction of natural environment. Most of the cleared natural forests are turned into artificial environments that which wild animals and birds cannot cope with (Pacheco Capella, et al, 2016). Accordingly, the level and balance of biodiversity is destroyed, an aspect that risks the entire ecology from collapsing. Agriculture is apparently occupying most of the land that used to be habitat for many animals in the area. Most plant species have been cut down and animals and birds died of toxic substances released into the environment.

3. Deforestation

This has been another major factor that has led to extinction of several species of plants and wild animals. People and industries are logging trees in the forest without replacing them. This has consequently led to a declining population of trees available in the forests. Apparently, forests serve the heart and home to all wildlife animals and organisms (Pacheco Capella, et al, 2016). Logging of trees consequently leads into destruction of habitat for many kinds of animals species. Accordingly, these animals might migrate or die due to lack of food and shelter which is provided by the forests. Most of the people who cut down the trees down in the forests do not consider the measures that have been set to conserve biodiversity.

Trees are being cut down for construction purposes and industrial use. The population in the area has always been increasing, an aspect that increases the demand for resources sourced from the forests. This includes timber that is milled and transported to the cities and homes for construction purposes (Maffi, Luisa, 2005). Accordingly, much of the forests are being cleared by these people where they reduce the size of natural habitat for many wild animals and birds. Besides this, forests are being cleared by human beings to build settlement homes. This has consequently posed a great risk to total extinction of several plant, animal and organism species in the region.

4. Mining

Excavation of valuable minerals and metals has been a factor that greatly threatens the ecological system of a place. People make huge holes that which they abandon after exhausting the mineral or metal they used to extract. Mining is therefore an activity that leaves the land ugly and unsafe for the animals and plants living in the wild (Hancock, Lorin, 2019). The activity distorts the natural look of the environment. This consequently destroys the home of several animals living near the place. It is an activity that undeniably accounts for the extinction of several plant and animals species in the ecology. The activity has indeed threatened the life of and survival of several kinds of living organisms in the region.

Moreover, mining pollutes the natural environment which is the home of these organisms. It is an activity causes air, soil and sound pollution that may lead into death or migration of important organisms for the ecological sustainability of the area. The activity is found to release toxic substances into the environment that greatly distort the normal and natural form of the environment (Persha, Lauren, et al, 2012). Accordingly, plant and animal species find it difficult to survive in such environment and migrate or other die of the toxic substances released into the environment. Additionally, the activity causes climate change that affects the normal progress and life of the organisms living in the entire environment.

5. Industrialization

The growth of urban centers and industries has been another major factor that largely destroys the natural environment. It is an aspect characterized with clearing of lands and all sorts of pollution. Accordingly, growth of industries and cities alter the existing natural environment. This consequently makes the environment unfit for the survival and flourishing of the various living organisms near the place and the entire region (Pacheco Capella, et al, 2016). Animals and plants have died and some species gone into extinction due to the activities resulting from industrialization. Precisely, the population is always increasing which has led to continuous growth of urban centers and industries. This aspect is therefore replacing the natural environment to artificial one which cannot be survived by animal and plant species used to natural environment.

Industrialization has been the prime cause to pollution which makes the environment unfit for the life of animals and plants in the area’s ecology. Industrial machines and motor vehicles emit dangerous gases that pollute the air causing serious problems to the animals and plants life. This consequently makes animal migrate into other better places that have good environment for their survival (Sodhi, Navjot S., et al, 2004). Besides this, these industries have been found to release harmful substances into the water bodies that are the home to many aquatic organisms. They consequently end up killing several kinds of marine animals and other organisms which therefore affect the ecological sustainability of marine life.

Moreover, industrialization has been reported as a major factor that leads into global warming. This consequently changes the entire climate which affects the life of organisms that have adapted the particular climate found in the region.     Accordingly, some plant species and animals are subject to extinction due to these climate change caused by continued growth of industries and urban centers (Persha, Lauren, et al, 2010). Animals and plants thrive well at certain environment with specific climate for better progress and development. Accordingly, a change in climate makes the environment no longer suitable for the animals and plants living in the region. This consequently shows that growth of industries in the region threatens the level of bio-culture since it alters the entire environment due to the side effects associated with industrialization.

6. Pollution

Pollution is the release of toxic substances into the environment. Bio-cultural organisms depend on natural environment for better growth and development. Accordingly, pollution has been posing a major threat to the organisms living in the region. The environment is being changed by the harmful substances being released into it (Maffi, Luisa, 2005). This has consequently led to a reduced population of the various species in the region. Pollution is found to change the climate which might subject the organisms into migration or death as the environment reveals dangerous aspects that make them unable to survive in it.

Human activities are apparently threatening biodiversity in the region. Most if the activities carried by people have been found to cause pollution which affects the entire ecological system. This has been through agricultural farming, industrialization and mining activities that massively produce harmful substances and gases into the environment (Hancock, Lorin, 2019). Accordingly, human activities are liable for the declined population and number of species of organisms living in the area. Important species have gone into extinction due to the pollution caused by human actions that change the environment vital for the survival of these organisms.

3. Methodology

The study used varied methods that were aimed at assessing trends of biodiversity in South Asia region. These included secondary data analysis, collection of primary data and systematic reviews of data-sets that have already been collected and analyzed to explain the state of bio-culture in the region. Accordingly, various variables were assessed that helped in obtaining credible information on the state of biodiversity in the regions varying topography. These were aimed at determining the number of organism species living in the region’s plateaus, mountain, islands and waters bodies. Their population were also assessed and analyzed according to available data from the publication relating to the region’s biodiversity level.

Accordingly, any changes were assessed and investigated to determine the potential effect they had on bio-culture. Sub-groups were formulated to assess different species in particular regions. This was to find the number of species and their population from different ecological niches. Subsequently, this data was used to determine sustainability level of each biome and the major potential threats endangering the species in the region. Besides this, secondary data was analyzed to assess the kind of species that have already gone into extinction and whether they can be revived. The study also used several data-sets to determine the importance of having highly sustainable level of biodiversity and the potential risks of losing bio-culture to human growth and development.

4. Findings

South Asia has been one of the most areas that have rich biomes of diversified species of animals and plants. It is a region that has a good climate and its topography ranges from the highest point in the world-Mt. Everest- and the lowest point in the world which is the Indian Ocean beach. This consequently makes the region a home of several kinds of animals and plants that grow and develop in its natural environment (Sodhi, Navjot S., et al, 2004). The area is reported to have numerous species of flora and fauna that make it one of the most attractive regions in the world. Accordingly, South Asia has a sustainable biodiversity based on the areas good climate, soil, diverse topography and water.

South Asia is said to have around 60000 different species of plants. This includes small plants like mosses and algae and tall plants that grow in the region. The region has a good vegetation cover that makes the place a good habitat to many animals and other living organisms. South Asia has a tropical climate that ensures sufficient rain and optimal temperatures that sufficiently enhance optimal flourishing of all plant species found in the region (Pacheco Capella, et al, 2016). Besides this, this region has good and varied soils that support the growth and development of diverse plant species found in the area.

However, there has been an unprecedented decline in the number of species and population of trees in the region from the last two decades. Human activities that are being carried in the area have indeed threatened the survival of the various plant species. Some of the species like mango have gone into extinction due to changes in climate caused by uncontrolled human activities that alter the natural environment (Persha, Lauren, et al, 2012). Besides this, a number of species is threatened, others endangered and vulnerable to extinction. Accordingly, the number of these species reveals a declining data, an aspect that has aroused several questions to the units concerned with biodiversity conservation.

There has been no provable data that shows the actual number of insect species living in the area. The reason as to this is that the area has diversifying topography, vegetation cover and water bodies. Accordingly, it is an area that has numerous insect species living in different habitats in the region’s biome (Clements, Gopalasamy R. n.d). Insects are apparently interdependent with plants that grow in the region. As an area with tropical climate, diverse insects have been seen in the region that plays a vital role in the ecological system. The richness in insect species has indeed helped the biome of the area maintain a sustainable biodiversity.

Human activities in the area have always been affecting the climate and environment. Insects are said to be less charismatic and vulnerable to slight climatic changes. Accordingly, human encroachment into the forests, deforestation and pollution is greatly endangering insect species in the region. Data shows that some of the insects that used to be found in the region have gone in to extinct (Maffi, Luisa, 2005). Besides this, most of the insect species are critically endangered and threatened by climatic and change occurring in the region. Moreover, clearance of trees and grass in the grasslands has destroyed a habitant for many insects. This has consequently led to a declining trend of the number of insect species as well as their population in the area.

South Asia is said to have over 900 different species of reptiles. Its diverse topography that ranges from high lands to low and flats terrains has made it become a good home for these diverse kinds of reptiles. Accordingly, the environment provides enough food and shelter for these reptiles (Hancock, Lorin, 2019). This includes snakes, turtles, lizards, crocodiles and other several kinds of reptiles. Their presence in the region has played a vital role of enhancing a sustained bio-culture. They are interdepended with one another and the entire kinds of living organisms in the biome for survival in terms of food and shelter.

However, reports show that this number of reptile species in South Asia is declining. The reason as to this is that human activities are undeniably degrading their natural environment. For instance, crocodiles and turtles are said to be the most endangered due to pollution of the water bodies in the region (Pacheco Capella, et al, 2016). Besides this, hunters are indeed threatening their survival with crocodiles being persecuted. Some of the species have already gone into extinct based on the changing climate that is being witnessed in the area. Snake species are also at danger as they are persecuted and killed from fear of poisoning people.

There are about 700 amphibian species described to be native in South Asia region. The area has rich vegetation and forests that serves as good shelters and source of food to many amphibians. Accordingly, South Asia is rich in amphibians with many other species that are yet to be described (Sodhi, Navjot S., et al, 2004). It is a place that is said to house one of the rarest lung less frogs in the world. This consequently shows that amphibians occupy a big role in the region’s biome biodiversity. Some are serve as source of food, ingredients for making medicines and pets kept in home.

However, the population of these amphibians has been declining from the past two decades. Human beings are destroying their habitats making them unable to survive the changing environment caused by human activities. People are exploiting the forests and converting their homes into places for agricultural activities (Hancock, Lorin, 2019). Over exploitation for food, medicinal ingredients and pet trade has been another challenging factor that leads into extinction of some amphibian species. This consequently shows that majority of these amphibians are at danger of going into extinction as people are actively degrading their habitats through pollution, over consumption, encroachment into their habitats for agricultural use and other several distorting activities.

South Asia is reported to have the highest number of native birds that live in the region. It is a region that has a rich topography, climate and vegetation cover that greatly supports the life of several kinds of birds. The place has different kinds of birds that live either in the deep forests or open lands depending on their charisma (Clements, Gopalasamy R. n.d). This consequently shows South Asia, based on its general formation is a home to many birds interdepended with other living organisms in the region. Reports show that the area has been well studied about its birds and thus there is enough data regarding the present status of their population.

Nevertheless, the climate is changing as revealed climatic issues such as global warming. This is consequently threatening several kinds of birds that live in the area. Moreover, human activities have posed a great risk of making some of their species go into extinction. Birds are being hunted for food and human beings are undeniably overexploiting them (Sodhi, Navjot S., et al, 2004). Wild bird trade is another challenge that has led to extinction of some South Asian endemic birds over time. People are also clearing forests which serve as their homes for agricultural use. Toxic substances resulting mining and industrial activities have also threatened the survival of numerous species of birds living in the South Asian Biome.

The tropical region of South Asia houses the largest number of mammal species compared to any other tropical region in the world. It is an area that is rich several kinds of mammals endemic to the region. Apparently, there are some places like the Philippines that host mammals that have never been found in other regions of the world (Persha, Lauren, et al, 2010). This consequently shows that the area has a rich bio-culture with purely native animals living in the place. The area has a variety of mammal species that range from small to big mammals like elephants and rhinoceros.

Some of the animals have been found to re-adopt the changing climate and environments. However, mammals in the region are said to be critically endangered. People are destroying their habitats through uncontrolled deforestation. Besides this, illegal wild trade has been another main factor that has led to the extinction of some species that used to be found in the region. Mammals are being over exploited for food with others being killed for their valuable body parts. Their homes are being changed for agricultural activities. Accordingly, mammals reveal the highest rate of endangerment as they are the most affected kinds of living organisms by these uncontrolled human activities (Pacheco Capella, et al, 2016). Their population is declining with some species going into extinction. However, some have tries to re-adapt to the changing environment and cope with the pressure being aroused by human beings.

Fish have been a great source of food in South Asia and the entire world. The area has fresh waters that house several species of fish. Accordingly, South Asia has a rich and diverse biodiversity (Clements, Gopalasamy R. n.d). The place has several river basins, lakes and the Indian Ocean. This consequently shows that there are a lot of different kinds of fish native to the area. Some have been able to adapt the changing the environment with others going into extinction. Reports show that there are about 340 freshwater fish species in the region.

Human activities are undeniably changing the natural environment that which is thought to provide optimal conditions for survival of organisms. People have polluted the water bodies through pollution that comes from industries. Toxic substances are being released into the water which is the home to fish hence killing a large number of some species. Besides this, agricultural activities are also causing pollution since they use chemical that end up being deposited in to water bodies (Persha, Lauren, et al, 2012). Moreover, overfishing has been another major threatening challenge as fishermen are uncontrollably fishing all the available fish species regardless of their size and population. This is consequently endangering some species that might soon go into extinction if conservation measure will not be taken.

5. Intervention Measures that can be used in the Region

According to the provided species and population trends given for the various species that live South Asian biome, effective measures have to be put in place or otherwise the region losses its rich bio-culture. The reported data reveal declining trends in term s of population and number of species endemic to the region. Some of species that were native to the area are reported to have gone into extinction due to the ever increasing pressures resulting from uncontrolled human activities (Hancock, Lorin, 2019). Every kind of living organism is undeniably endangered and vulnerable to extinction based on the increasing rate in climatic change and habitat loss being caused by human exploitative activities. There is consequently a great need for implementation of effective measures aim at conserving this rich bio-culture in the region as it plays a vital role in human prosperity.

A. Forest Restoration

Forests are habitants to nearly everything in an ecological environment. They provide food and shelter to the various organisms living in the region. However, people’s activities have destroyed the natural form of forests. For instance, agriculture is apparently replacing the natural forests with artificial productive crops. Palm oil trees are examples of highly cultivated crops in the region that have led to the clearance of large areas of natural forests (Sodhi, Navjot S., et al, 2004). This has consequently distorted the natural habitat for many organisms forcing into extinction. Moreover, deforestation has led to the clearance of various tree species and threatened their extinction.

Accordingly, there is a great need of restoring the forests back to their natural and normal appearance for a more sustainable bio-culture. People cutting down trees in the forests either for construction or industrial use have to replant again the same kind of trees that they have cut (Pacheco Capella, et al, 2016). This could be possible by creation of seedbeds with seedlings of the natural trees available in the region. Subsequently, their regrowth will lead into restoration of the forest back to its natural appearance to sustain the various endemic organisms living in the place. It is a measure that plays a vital role of mitigating global warming that is rapidly changing the climate. Accordingly, the government and the people in the region should start ecological restoration programs to revive the normal level of biodiversity of the animals, plants and other living organisms native to the area.

B. Enhancement of Protected Area Networks

People are illegally hunting animals for their valuable body parts. Uncontrolled deforestation has also been taking place in the area with people cutting down trees without replacing them for construction. Apparently, these actions are undeniably threatening the region’s bio-culture as the natural habitat for various organisms is generally being degraded. Accordingly, the government should gazette restriction to certain regions rich in biodiversity(Hancock, Lorin, 2019). Population is putting pressure into the forests with people continuously encroaching into the forests for settlements and agricultural activities. This consequently shows that there will be no natural habitat for the various organisms in future as the entire biome will have changed.

The government should therefore create and implement enforcement programs that ensure effective maintenance and conservation of all available resources in the region. Forests should be reserved for wild life where people should not carry any exploitive activity. Good governance and management of the reserved areas would also stop this declining trend of species population (Clements, Gopalasamy R. n.d).  The reserved and restricted areas should therefore be highly monitored by security groups that ensure people keep away from the areas. Creation of anti-poaching groups would also reduce illegal hunting of animals that are vulnerable to extinction.

C. Safeguard Biodiversity in Human-Dominated Landscapes

Human activities have been the prime cause to the declining bio-culture level being witnessed in South Asia. They are uncontrollably degrading the natural environment and habitat for many animals, birds and other organisms (Pacheco Capella, et al, 2016). Accordingly, safeguarding biodiversity in places where people have already carried their activities would help conserve biodiversity. Their actions are just exploitive and threaten the survival of other organisms in the place. Precisely, thousands of animal, plants and birds species may face extinction for the next two decades if the governments in the region fail to implement effective conservation measures.

This could be done through educating people on the importance of conserving biodiversity. People need to know the ways of effective utilization of natural resources without affecting the normal functioning of the natural environment and bio-culture. For instance, cutting down of trees should be done selectively to avoid extinction of vital and native plant species in the region (Persha, Lauren, et al, 2012). Moreover, pollution should be controlled with all means to avoid the release of harmful substances into the natural habitats of birds, animals, fish and other organisms. This would consequently help restore the areas bio-culture to its normal level, an aspect that ensures prosperity in human life.

D. Policy Formulation and Strict Adherence

Deviance has been of the most challenging factor that slows the progress of a society. Accordingly, there are certain people such as illegal hunters who find it uneasy to stop the activity (Sodhi, Navjot S., et al, 2004). The government should therefore enact laws and policies that govern and regulate consumption of utilization of natural resources. It is a measure that would indeed help management of biodiversity since people have to adhere to these laws and policies enforced by the government.

Accordingly, people logging trees in the forests should provide a justifiable reason for cutting down the trees to be given certificates. This ensures that trees are selectively logged and replanted according to the laws and policies outlined in the constitution. Moreover, every industry and agricultural farm should ensure that pollution is controlled (Clements, Gopalasamy R.n.d) There are laws that can be enacted to ensure that no harmful substances are released into the environment. Accordingly, policy adherence would greatly help conserve biodiversity in the region since every human activity is controlled and regulated to ensure effective utilization of natural resources.

6. Conclusion

Biodiversity has been one of the major aspects that enhance prosperity in human life. It is a factor that makes people make continued use of natural resources without exhaustion. South Asia has been one of the major regions that reveal a rich bio-culture enhanced by its diversified topography, climate, water bodies and other aspects (Nantarat, Nattawadee, et al 2019). The region scores big numbers of several kinds of plants, animals, insects, birds and other organisms that are purely native to the region. Majority of the land is occupied by primary and secondary forests that are a home to many wild organisms. However, data shows that there is a declining trend in terms of bio-species and their populations (Persha, Lauren, et al, 2010). Some of the plants, animals, birds, and other organisms have gone into extinction due to the threatening human activities that are continuously being carried in the region. Human beings are degrading the natural habitat, replacing it with agricultural activities and intoxicating it with harmful substances that make the various biological organisms vulnerable to extinction. This consequently shows that there is a great need to take actions that would ensure effective conservation of biodiversity before everything goes into extinction in the coming years.

Works Cited

Clements, Gopalasamy R. “Biodiversity State and Trends in Southeast Asia.”

Hancock, Lorin. “What is Biodiversity and Why is It Under Threat?” World Wildlife Fund, May 2019,

Hughes, Alice C. “Even As More New Species Are Found, Southeast Asia is in the Grip of a Biodiversity Crisis.” The Conversation, 5 Jan. 2017,

Maffi, Luisa. “Linguistic, cultural, and biological diversity.” Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 34 (2005): 599-617.

Nantarat, Nattawadee, et al. “Phylogenetics and species delimitations of the operculated land snail Cyclophorus volvulus (Gastropoda: Cyclophoridae) reveal cryptic diversity and new species in Thailand.” International Journal of Science, 2019, Accessed 13 Oct. 2019.


Persha, Lauren, ArunAgrawal, and AshwiniChhatre. “Social and ecological synergy: local rulemaking, forest livelihoods, and biodiversity conservation.” science 331.6024 (2011): 1606-1608.

Persha, Lauren, et al. “Biodiversity conservation and livelihoods in human-dominated landscapes: Forest commons in South Asia.” Biological conservation 143.12 (2010): 2918-2925.

Sodhi, Navjot S., et al. “Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster.” Trends in ecology & evolution 19.12 (2004): 654-660.

Squires, Dale. “Biodiversity Conservation in A sia.” Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies 1.1 (2014): 144-159.

Subramanian, Suneetha M., et al. “Unraveling the Drivers of Southeast Asia’s Biodiversity Loss.” United Nations University, 2011,